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Blood lead and ZPP level sampling and analysis. The employer shall make available biological monitoring in the form of blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels to each employee covered under paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section on the following schedule:

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At least every two months for each employee whose last blood sampling and analysis indicated a blood lead level at or above 40 µg/100 g of whole blood. This frequency shall continue until two consecutive blood samples and analyses indicate a blood lead level below 40 µg/100 g of whole blood; and

Follow-up blood sampling tests. Whenever the results of a blood lead level test indicate that an employee's blood lead level is at or above the numerical criterion for medical removal under paragraph (k)(1)(i)(A) of this section, the employer shall provide a second (follow-up) blood sampling test within two weeks after the employer receives the results of the first blood sampling test.

Accuracy of blood lead level sampling and analysis. Blood lead level sampling and analysis provided pursuant to this section shall have an accuracy (to a confidence level of 95 percent) within plus or minus 15 percent or 6 µg/100ml, whichever is greater, and shall be conducted by a laboratory licensed by the Center for Disease Control, United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (CDC) or which has received a satisfactory grade in blood lead proficiency testing from CDC in the prior twelve months.

Employee notification. Within five working days after the receipt of biological monitoring results, the employer shall notify in writing each employee whose blood lead level is at or above 40 µg/100 g:

The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that a periodic and a follow-up blood sampling test conducted pursuant to this section indicate that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 60 µg/100 g of whole blood; and

The employer shall remove an employee from work having an exposure to lead at or above the action level on each occasion that the average of the last three blood sampling tests conducted pursuant to this section (or the average of all blood sampling tests conducted over the previous six (6) months, whichever is longer) indicates that the employee's blood lead level is at or above 50 µg/100 g of whole blood; provided, however, that an employee need not be removed if the last blood sampling test indicates a blood lead level below 40 µg/100 g of whole blood.

For an employee removed due to a blood lead level at or above 60 µg/100 g, or due to an average blood lead level at or above 50 µg/100 g, when two consecutive blood sampling tests indicate that the employee's blood lead level is below 40 µg/100 g of whole blood;

Employees whose blood lead levels do not adequately decline within 18 months of removal. The employer shall take the following measures with respect to any employee removed from exposure to lead due to an elevated blood lead level whose blood lead level has not declined within the past eighteen (18) months of removal so that the employee has been returned to his or her former job status:

Design: Five healthy subjects consumed in random order six test meals consisting of 100 g of sliced lettuce dressed with olive oil (Blank), olive oil plus 1 g acetic acid in the form of vinegar (AcOH), or olive oil plus sodium acetate in the form of vinegar neutralized to pH 6.0 with sodium bicarbonate (AcNa). On three occasions test meals were followed by a challenge consisting of 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread (Bread). Glucose and acetate concentrations were measured in arterialized capillary blood before and until 95 min after the meals. Ultrasonography was performed in four other subjects to measure gastric emptying times after AcOH + Bread and AcNa + Bread.

Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) is a measure of alcohol in the blood as a percentage. It is calculated in grams per 100 mL of blood, so a BAC of 0.08 means your blood is 0.08% alcohol by volume. Using a breathalyzer, BAC is measured as grams per 210 Liters of breath (since the ratio of breath alcohol to blood alcohol is 2,100:1).

The degree of acidity or alkalinity of any liquid (including blood) is a function of its hydrogen ion concentration [H+], and pH is simply a way of expressing hydrogen ion activity. The relationship between pH and hydrogen ion concentration is described thus:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an acidic gas; the amount of CO2 in blood is largely controlled by the rate and depth of breathing or ventilation. pCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 in blood. It is a measure of the pressure exerted by that small portion (5 %) of total CO2 that remains in the gaseous state, dissolved in the blood plasma. pCO2 is the respiratory component of acid-base balance and reflects the adequacy of pulmonary ventilation. The severity of ventilator failure as well as the chronicity can be judged by the accompanying changes in acid-base status [1].

Lactate, the anion that results from dissociation of lactic acid, is an intracellular metabolite of glucose. It is produced by skeletal muscle cells, red blood cells (erythrocytes), the brain, and other tissues during anaerobic energy production (glycolysis). Lactate is formed in the intracellular fluid from pyruvate; the reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) [1].

The calcium ion (Ca2+) is one of the most prevalent cations in the body, where approximately 1 % is present in the extracellular fluid of blood. Ca2+ plays a vital role for bone mineralization and many cellular processes, e.g. contractility of the heart and the skeletal musculature, neuromuscular transmission, hormone secretion and action in various enzymatic reactions such as, e.g. blood coagulation.

Chloride (Cl-) is the major anion in the extracellular fluid and one of the most important anions in blood. The main function of Cl- is to maintain osmotic pressure, fluid balance, muscular activity, ionic neutrality in plasma, and help elucidate the cause of acid-base disturbances.

The concentration of total hemoglobin (ctHb) in blood includes oxyhemoglobin (cO2Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (cHHb), as well as the dysfunctional hemoglobin species that are incapable of binding oxygen:carboxyhemoglobin (cCOHb) (see COHb), methemoglobin (cMetHb) (see MetHb) and sulfhemoglobin (cSulfHb).Thus: ctHb = cO2Hb + cHHb + cCOHb + cMetHb + cSulfHbThe rare sulfHb is not included in the reported c tHb in most oximeters.

Humans can't live without blood. Without blood, the body's organs couldn't get the oxygen and nutrients they need to survive, we couldn't keep warm or cool off, fight infections, or get rid of our own waste products. Without enough blood, we'd weaken and die.

Blood is made up of blood cells and plasma. Plasma (pronounced: PLAZ-muh) is a yellowish fluid that has nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. The different types of blood cells have different jobs.

Red blood cells: Red blood cells (RBCs, also called erythrocytes; pronounced: ih-RITH-ruh-sytes) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. RBCs contain hemoglobin (pronounced: HEE-muh-glow-bin), a protein that carries oxygen. Blood gets its bright red color when hemoglobin picks up oxygen in the lungs. As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the different body parts.

White blood cells: White blood cells (also called leukocytes; pronounced: LOO-kuh-sytes) are a key part of the immune system. The immune system helps the body defend itself against infection. Different types of white blood cells (WBCs) fight germs, such as document.write(def_bacteria_T); bacteriaand document.write(def_viruses_T); viruses. Some types of WBCs make antibodies, which are special proteins that recognize foreign materials and help the body get rid of them.

Blood contains far fewer WBCs than red blood cells, although the body can increase WBC production to fight infection. The white blood cell count (the number of cells in a given amount of blood) in someone with an infection often is higher than usual because more WBCs are being made or are entering the bloodstream to battle the infection.

Platelets: Platelets (also called thrombocytes; pronounced: THROM-buh-sytes) are tiny oval-shaped cells that help in the clotting process. When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help seal off the leak. Platelets work with proteins called clotting factors to control bleeding inside our bodies and on our skin.

With each heartbeat, the heart pumps blood throughout our bodies, carrying oxygen to every cell. After delivering the oxygen, the blood returns to the heart. The heart then sends the blood to the lungs to pick up more oxygen. This cycle repeats over and over again.

Sometimes medicine can be given to help a person make more blood cells. And sometimes blood cells and some of the special proteins blood contains can be replaced by giving a person blood from someone else. This is called a blood transfusion (pronounced: trans-FEW-zyun).

People can get transfusions the part of blood they need, such as platelets, RBCs, or a clotting factor. When someone donates blood, the whole blood can be separated into its different parts to be used in these ways.

COVID-19 antibody testing ended June 17, 2022. You can still view what your 2022 test results mean below.For blood donations made between June 2020 and June 2021, please visit the previous antibody test results page. Thank you for giving blood. Your test results will appear in your online donor account approximately 2 weeks after you donate. What do your test results mean? Click below on the box that matches what you see in your donor account (Spanish version).For updates and more information on COVID-19, visit the CDC COVID-19 webpage. Please contact your healthcare provider with questions related to this information.

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