Ge with upturn (Ґ, ґ) is the fifth letter of the Ukrainian alphabet. It can also be used in the Belarusian language. This letter means the sound [g] in both languages, "Г" meaning the sound [h]. Firstly this letter appeared in the middle of the 19th century.
The first column in this table contains the MARC-8 code (in hex) for the character as coming from the G0 graphic set, the second column contains the MARC-8 code (in hex) for the character as coming from the G1 graphic set, the third column contains the UCS/Unicode 16-bit code (in hex), the fourth column contains the UTF-8 code (in hex) for the UCS characters, the fifth column contains a representation of the character (where possible), the sixth column contains the MARC character name, followed by the UCS name. If the MARC name is the same as or very similar to the UCS name, only the UCS name is given.
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The Nivkh keyboard for Android included above, as far as I can tell (lacking any Android devices to install the app onto), allows the user to type by (I presume, having never used an Android device) pressing the key and selecting . Similarly, appears over the key. This method seems roughly analogous to the method we employed, which uses an AltGr key to create 3rd- and 4th-level characters.
Likewise, the 2001 keyboard for Windows 95/98/ME uses the AltGr key to produce the non-Russian Cyrillic letters. The difference between these first two keyboards and ours is that we made a few of the non-Russian characters primary (1st- and 2nd-level); for instance, instead of putting in the 3rd and 4th levels of the key for , we put them in the 1st and 2nd levels of the key for , because is not used in native Nivkh words (and is relatively uncommon in Russian words, thus seldom appearing in Russian borrowings), whereas is a common letter in native Nivkh words. We decided that "misplacing" a few common letters is better than forcing the user to use AltGr to access them.
Jonathan Washington's 2017 Nivkh keyboard differs greatly from ours and the other two, as it uses various key combinations to produce the non-Russian letters of Nivkh; for example, typing yields . This keyboard has the advantage of not needing an AltGr key, but the disadvantage of requiring two consecutive key strokes (or three in the case of ) for the special letters, as opposed to the two simultaneous key depressions that out keyboard uses.
We based our Nivkh keyboard on the existing Russian keyboard, figuring that most Nivkhi would already be familiar with the Russian layout, as it is the one most widely used in Russia. The most significant changes that we made involved adding the several non-Russian letters that exist in Nivkh.
We replaced with because the former is only used in Russian loans, and even in Russian is relatively uncommon, whereas the latter is common in native words. We decided that it would be better to make more accessible by putting it in the first and second levels of a key, than to place it more "logically" or systematically by putting it with , but in the third and fourth levels.
we added in the third and fourth (AltGr) levels of the key, as there was not another available and more-or-less centrally located key with a letter uncommon in Nivkh that we could make it primary on.
With the keys we decided not to put the most basic form as the primary letter on what is the Russian key; instead, we made primary (first and second level) and secondary (third and fourth level), because, according to our analysis of the first 10 chapters of the Bible in Nivkh, is significantly less frequent than . Also, is less frequent than , so that, too, is secondary. Although this decision leads to a less systematic system, it would also lead to increased ease and accessibility for users. Because we added two more -based characters, we had to put and together on one key, with , the more frequent, primary.
We made secondary to while was made primary because is more frequent (in our small sample) than . We made room for by putting the hard sign and soft sign together. Ostensibly, both signs are used only in Russian borrowings, and the hard sign rarely occurs, so it is only accessible with AltGr.
The remaining level 3 and level 4 characters were taken from both the Russian and English keyboards with the addition of several other Cyrillic letters and a few further characters (such as the yen/yuan symbol) that we thought would be the most likely to be useful for someone in the community or region.
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